Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC


  • Water is a fundamental resource for life, and its availability and management play a crucial role in the development of any nation.
  • In a country like India, where a significant portion of the population relies on agriculture and where water scarcity is a pressing issue, effective water management becomes even more critical.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), launched by the Government of India, aims to address the water challenges faced by rural areas and ensure the availability of clean drinking water to every household.
  • In this article, we will explore the objectives, strategies, and impact of the Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC.

Jal Jeevan Mission UPSC

Need for Jal Jeevan Mission

Water Scarcity

  • India is facing an acute water scarcity situation, especially in rural areas.
  • Many regions experience water shortages, with water sources often drying up during the summer months.
  • The mission addresses this issue by promoting efficient water management and conservation practices.

Health and Sanitation

  • Access to clean and safe drinking water is crucial for maintaining good health and preventing waterborne diseases.
  • Many rural communities in India still rely on contaminated water sources, leading to waterborne illnesses like diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid.
  • By providing safe drinking water, the Jal Jeevan Mission aims to improve public health and reduce disease prevalence.

Inequality in Water Access

  • There is a significant disparity in access to clean water between urban and rural areas in India.
  • The mission aims to bridge this gap by ensuring equitable distribution of water resources and making clean drinking water available to every rural household.

Empowering Women

  • In many rural areas, women and girls are responsible for fetching water from distant sources.
  • This task consumes a significant portion of their time and energy, impacting their education and economic opportunities.
  • By providing piped water connections to households, the mission aims to reduce the burden on women and empower them to pursue other activities.

Water Quality

  • Even in areas where water is available, its quality remains a concern.
  • Contaminated water sources can have severe health implications.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission emphasizes the importance of not just water availability but also ensuring the quality of water supplied to households.

Climate Change

  • With the changing climate patterns, water availability is becoming increasingly uncertain.
  • The mission encourages the adoption of water-saving technologies and rainwater harvesting to cope with the challenges posed by climate change.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • The United Nations’ SDGs include ensuring access to clean water and sanitation for all by 2030.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission aligns with this global goal and contributes to India’s commitment to achieving sustainable development.

Objectives of Jal Jeevan Mission

Provide piped water supply

  • The primary objective of the Jal Jeevan Mission is to ensure every household in rural areas has access to piped water supply.
  • The mission aims to provide functional household tap connections (FHTCs) to all rural households, thereby reducing the dependence on unimproved water sources.

Sustainable water supply

  • The mission focuses on ensuring the long-term sustainability of water supply systems.
  • This involves the use of appropriate water conservation and management techniques, such as rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge, and efficient water use practices.

Water quality monitoring

  • Another important objective of the mission is to ensure the supply of clean and potable drinking water to every rural household.
  • Regular water quality testing and monitoring are carried out to identify and address contamination issues, ensuring the provision of safe drinking water.

Community participation

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission emphasizes community involvement and ownership.
  • It aims to create a sense of ownership among the rural population by involving them in the planning, implementation, and management of water supply systems.
  • This approach promotes sustainability and ensures the long-term success of the mission.

Capacity building

  • The mission aims to build the capacity of local communities, Gram Panchayats (village councils), and other stakeholders in managing water supply systems.
  • This includes providing training and technical assistance to enable them to effectively operate and maintain the infrastructure.

Convergence and coordination

  • To optimize resources and achieve maximum impact, the mission focuses on convergence and coordination with other related programs and schemes.
  • This involves collaboration with various government departments and agencies to streamline efforts and avoid duplication of work.

Information, education, and communication (IEC)

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission recognizes the importance of creating awareness among the rural population about water-related issues.
  • Information, education, and communication activities are carried out to promote behavior change, hygiene practices, and efficient water use.

Data management and monitoring

  • Effective data management and monitoring systems are put in place to track progress, identify gaps, and facilitate evidence-based decision-making.
  • Regular monitoring and evaluation of the mission’s implementation help ensure accountability and transparency.

Strategies Implemented of Jal Jeevan Mission

Village-level Water Security Plans

  • The mission emphasizes the preparation of Village Action Plans (VAPs) and District Action Plans (DAPs) to ensure water security at the local level.
  • These plans assess the existing water resources, demand, and supply, and propose appropriate interventions for sustainable water management.


  • The mission promotes convergence with other schemes and programs to optimize resources and infrastructure.
  • This includes coordination with departments such as rural development, health, sanitation, and education to ensure efficient water management and service delivery.

Operation and Maintenance

  • The mission focuses on sustainable operation and maintenance of water supply systems.
  • It promotes the formation of water user committees or village-level institutions to ensure community participation and ownership.
  • Regular maintenance activities and monitoring mechanisms are put in place to ensure the long-term functionality of the infrastructure.

Financing and Funding

  • The mission mobilizes financial resources from various sources, including the central government, state governments, and external funding agencies.
  • It promotes the use of innovative funding mechanisms such as community participation, user charges, and public-private partnerships.

Key Components of Jal Jeevan Mission

Infrastructure Development

  • The mission focuses on the development of water supply infrastructure, including the construction of storage tanks, installation of pipelines, and establishment of water treatment plants.
  • This infrastructure ensures the availability of safe and clean drinking water to households.

Greywater Management

  • The mission also emphasizes the management of greywater, which includes wastewater from kitchens, bathrooms, and laundry.
  • Implementing proper greywater management techniques helps in reducing water pollution and conserving water resources.

Water Quality Monitoring

  • Regular monitoring of water quality is a crucial aspect of the mission.
  • It ensures that the water provided through tap connections meets the prescribed quality standards and is safe for consumption.

Sustainable Water Source Development

  • To ensure the long-term availability of water, the mission focuses on the development of sustainable water sources like groundwater recharge structures, rainwater harvesting systems, and rejuvenation of traditional water bodies.
Related Links
Atal Bhujal Yojana

Impact and Achievements

  • Since its inception, the Jal Jeevan Mission has made significant progress in providing tap connections to rural households.
  • This has not only improved access to clean drinking water but also reduced the burden on women and children who used to travel long distances to fetch water.
  • The mission has also contributed to the reduction of waterborne diseases and improved hygiene practices in rural areas.
  • With the availability of tap connections, people have better access to water for drinking, cooking, and sanitation purposes.

Challenges Faced by Jal Jeevan Mission

Infrastructure and Implementation

  • One of the major challenges is the lack of adequate infrastructure and implementation capacity at the grassroots level.
  • Many rural areas lack proper water supply systems, and the existing infrastructure is often inadequate or in poor condition.
  • Building and upgrading the required infrastructure to ensure water supply to every household is a complex task that requires significant investment and expertise.

Water Quality and Contamination

  • Ensuring access to safe and clean drinking water is another significant challenge.
  • Many rural areas face issues related to water quality, such as high levels of fluoride, arsenic, iron, or microbial contamination.
  • Addressing these issues requires advanced water treatment technologies, regular monitoring, and community awareness programs.

Sustainability and Operation & Maintenance

  • The long-term sustainability of water supply systems is crucial for the success of the mission.
  • Operation and maintenance of the infrastructure, regular monitoring of water sources, and ensuring community participation are essential for the sustained delivery of safe drinking water.
  • However, ensuring the availability of financial resources, skilled manpower, and community engagement poses challenges.

Geographical and Demographic Variations

  • India’s vast geographical and demographic diversity adds to the complexity of implementing the mission.
  • The availability of water sources, terrain, climate conditions, and population density vary significantly across different regions.
  • Implementing suitable and context-specific water supply solutions in diverse environments requires careful planning and customization.

Behavior Change and Awareness

  • Promoting behavior change and creating awareness about water conservation, hygiene practices, and the importance of safe drinking water is a crucial aspect of the mission.
  • However, changing deep-rooted behaviors and cultural practices related to water usage and hygiene can be a challenge, requiring sustained community engagement and behavior change campaigns.

Interdepartmental Coordination

  • Jal Jeevan Mission involves coordination and collaboration among various government departments and agencies at different levels.
  • Ensuring effective coordination and cooperation among these entities is essential for the smooth implementation of the mission.
  • However, bureaucratic hurdles, administrative delays, and lack of coordination can hinder the progress of the mission.

Future Outlook

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission has set ambitious targets to provide tap connections to all rural households by 2023.
  • The mission aims to leverage technology and innovation to achieve these targets.
  • The focus will also be on the sustainability of water sources, community participation, and capacity building.


  • The Jal Jeevan Mission is a significant step towards addressing the water challenges faced by rural areas in India.
  • By providing functional tap connections and promoting sustainable water management practices, the mission is transforming the lives of millions of people.
  • With continued efforts, the mission can bring about a positive and lasting impact on water availability, sanitation, and overall development.
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