Article 338 in the Indian Constitution


  • The Indian Constitution, a remarkable document that serves as the guiding light for the world’s largest democracy, comprises various articles and provisions aimed at ensuring justice, equality, and representation for all citizens.
  • Among these, Article 338 stands as a pivotal element, focusing on the well-being and upliftment of a specific segment of the population – the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • In this blog, we will delve into the depths of Article 338, exploring its origins, provisions, and significance in shaping India’s social landscape.

Origins and Historical Context

  • Article 338 traces its roots back to the framing of the Indian Constitution in the early years after gaining independence in 1947.
  • The framers of the Constitution recognized the historical disadvantages faced by certain communities, particularly the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, due to centuries of social discrimination and economic deprivation.
  • To address these issues, Article 338 was incorporated to safeguard the rights and interests of these marginalized communities.

Provisions of Article 338

  • Article 338 primarily deals with the establishment of a special authority known as the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • Over the years, there have been amendments and reorganizations, leading to the establishment of separate commissions for SCs and STs.

National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC):

  • Initially, Article 338 constituted a single National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. However, realizing the unique challenges faced by each group, the 89th Constitutional Amendment in 2003 led to the creation of separate commissions for SCs and STs.

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST):

  • Post-amendment, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes was established to specifically address the issues related to the well-being, development, and protection of the Scheduled Tribes in India.

Functions and Powers

  • The commissions, as envisaged by Article 338, are entrusted with a range of functions and powers to uphold the rights and interests of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes:

Investigation and Monitoring:

  • The commissions have the authority to investigate and monitor matters relating to the safeguards provided for the SCs and STs under the Constitution. This includes issues of social and economic rights, educational opportunities, and employment.

Safeguarding Rights:

  • One of the primary roles of these commissions is to ensure that the constitutional provisions and safeguards intended for the welfare of SCs and STs are effectively implemented.


  • The commissions are empowered to make recommendations for the effective implementation of the constitutional safeguards and measures for the advancement of these communities.


Inadequate Implementation:

  • One major challenge is the inadequate implementation of the provisions outlined in Article 338.
  • Despite constitutional safeguards, many SCs continue to face discrimination and marginalization, indicating a gap between constitutional intent and on-the-ground realities.

Limited Empowerment:

  • The Commission’s effectiveness in empowering Scheduled Castes is limited. It often faces challenges in ensuring that the benefits of affirmative action policies, reservations, and welfare programs reach the targeted population, leading to persistent socio-economic disparities.

Political Interference:

  • There have been instances of political interference in the functioning of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
  • This interference can compromise the autonomy of the commission and hinder its ability to impartially address issues faced by SCs.

Lack of Awareness:

  • A significant challenge is the lack of awareness about the rights and protections available to Scheduled Castes.
  • Many individuals from these communities may not be fully aware of the mechanisms in place to address their concerns, limiting the impact of Article 338.

Slow Judicial Processes:

  • Legal redressal for violations of the rights of Scheduled Castes can be a lengthy and slow process.
  • Delays in the judicial system can undermine the timely resolution of issues related to discrimination and atrocities against SCs.


  • Article 338 plays a crucial role in India’s commitment to building an egalitarian society.
  • By establishing dedicated commissions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the Constitution acknowledges the historical injustices and provides a mechanism for their redressal.
  • The significance of Article 338 can be understood through various lenses:

Social Justice:

  • Article 338 contributes to the broader goal of social justice by addressing the historical injustices faced by SCs and STs and ensuring their equitable participation in all spheres of life.


  • The commissions created under Article 338 act as instruments of empowerment, working towards the upliftment of marginalized communities through targeted interventions and policy recommendations.

Awareness and Sensitization:

  • By actively investigating and monitoring issues faced by SCs and STs, these commissions play a pivotal role in raising awareness about the challenges and sensitizing society to the need for inclusive development.


  • In essence, Article 338 stands as a testament to India’s commitment to creating a society that is not only democratic but also just and inclusive.
  • By establishing dedicated commissions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the Constitution seeks to correct historical imbalances and pave the way for a future where every citizen, regardless of their background, can thrive and contribute to the nation’s progress.
  • As India continues its journey towards socio-economic parity, the role of Article 338 remains indispensable in shaping a more equitable and harmonious society.

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