Article 154 of the Indian Constitution


  • In the vast tapestry of the Indian Constitution, Article 154 plays a pivotal role in defining the executive structure of the nation.
  • Enshrining the role and powers of the Governor, this article serves as a cornerstone in maintaining the federal structure of India.
  • The position of the Governor is vital to the smooth functioning of the Indian political system, bridging the gap between the Union and the states.
  • In this blog, we will delve into the significance, functions, and powers of Article 154 of the Indian Constitution.

Understanding the Indian Constitution

  • Before delving into the specifics of Article 154, it is essential to comprehend the nature and essence of the Indian Constitution.
  • Drafted by the Constituent Assembly, the Constitution is a comprehensive amalgamation of borrowed ideas and indigenous principles that uphold the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens.
  • It delineates the division of powers between the central and state governments, ensuring a robust federal structure.

Article 154

1) The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution.

2) Nothing in this article shall-
(a) be deemed to transfer to the Governor any functions conferred by any existing law on any other authority; or
(b) prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the State from conferring by law functions on any authority subordinate to the Governor.

The Making of Article 154

  • During the formulation of the Indian Constitution, the framers recognized the need for a unifying authority that could represent the President at the state level.
  • This led to the inclusion of Article 154, which establishes the office of the Governor in each state.
  • The provision was inspired by the colonial-era concept of the Governor-General representing the British monarch in the provinces.

Role of the Governor in the Indian Constitution

Appointment and Tenure

  • The Governor is appointed by the President of India and holds office during the pleasure of the President.
  • While the Constitution does not fix the tenure, governors typically serve a term of five years.
  • However, they can be removed earlier under certain circumstances.

Executive Powers

  • The Governor is the nominal head of the state government and acts as a link between the state and the President.
  • They appoint the Chief Minister, and other members of the Council of Ministers are appointed on the advice of the Chief Minister.

Legislative Powers

  • The Governor plays a crucial role in the functioning of the state legislature.
  • They summon and prorogue the sessions of the state legislature and address the opening session of each legislative year.

Discretionary Powers

  • Apart from the executive and legislative powers, the Governor possesses discretionary powers, which can be exercised in certain situations.
  • These powers include the right to appoint the Chief Minister when no party has a clear majority and the power to reserve certain bills for the President’s consideration.

Interaction with the Council of Ministers

Constitutional Provisions

  • The Governor works with the Council of Ministers, who are collectively responsible for the decisions taken by the state government.
  • The Governor must be kept informed about the decisions of the Council of Ministers, and they can ask for information on various matters.

Relationship with the Chief Minister

  • The Governor’s relationship with the Chief Minister is crucial for the smooth functioning of the state government.
  • Cooperation and coordination between the two are essential to ensure effective governance.

Comparison with the President’s Role

Distinctions and Similarities

  • While both the President and the Governor are constitutional heads, there are significant differences in their roles and powers.
  • Unlike the President, the Governor’s powers are limited by the Constitution, and they primarily act on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

Instances of Governor’s Intervention

Dismissal of State Governments

  • There have been instances where the Governor has dismissed state governments, leading to controversies and debates about the misuse of power.

Role during President’s Rule

  • The Governor assumes a more prominent role during the President’s Rule when the state government’s normal functioning is suspended, and the Governor takes over the administration.

Criticisms and Controversies

Misuse of Power

  • Governors have faced criticism for their alleged involvement in partisan politics and taking actions that favor the ruling party at the center.

Political Interference

  • Governors are expected to be apolitical and neutral, but at times, their actions have raised concerns about their impartiality and independence.


  • Article 154 of the Indian Constitution outlines the pivotal role of the Governor in the functioning of the state government.
  • As the representative of the President and the Union, the Governor acts as a vital link between the center and the states.
  • While the position has faced challenges and controversies in the past, it remains an essential element in preserving the federal structure and promoting harmonious relations between the Union and the states.

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